THE GOLDEN AGE OF ISLAM 79 complained in homely but forcible language that there was no escape from the insolence and rapine of the Turks, This so upset Motasim that he never again rode abroad in Baghdad, but founded a new city at Samarra, some sixty miles above the capital. The Revolt of the Jatt or Gypsies.—Under the orders of Walid L, at the beginning of the eighth century of our era, a large number of Jatt, termed Zott by the Arabs, had been transported with their buffaloes from the lower Indus to the marches of the Tigris.1 As soon as they were firmly established there they began to rob and to kill. By closing the Basra-Baghdad road they raised the cost of food in the capital, and compelled successive Caliphs to send armies to subdue them. Their insolence is expressed in the following poem, preserved in the pages of Tabari: O inhabitants of Baghdad die ! May your dismay last long ! . . . It is we who have defeated you, after having forced you to fight us in the open country. It is we who have driven you in front of us like a flock of weaklings. Mamun's generals were unsuccessful in dealing with the elusive scourge, and Motasim's first care was to send Ojayf, a trusted Arab general, to subdue this alien people. Ultimately, in A.H. 220 (834), Ojayf succeeded in his task by cutting their communications. The Zott surrendered, and after being exhibited in boats to the delighted citizens of Baghdad, wearing their national garb and playing their musical instruments, were exiled to Khanikin on the Turkish frontier—now a stage on the Teheran road—and to the frontiers of Syria, whither they proceeded, taking with them their buffaloes. These useful animals they can claim to have introduced into the Near East and into Europe. The Capture of Babek, A.H. 222 (837).—Motasim's most successful general was Afshin, who, after two years 1 I would refer to the deeply interesting Memoire sur les migrations des Tslganti h trovers PAsic by Professor de Goeje. Some years ago, I collected vocabularies of the Gypsy dialect in both the Kerman and the Khorasan provinces; vide Journal Anthro- pological Institute, vol. xxxii,, 1902, p. 339, and vol. xxxvi., July-December, 1906.